Elevator pressurization systems are indispensable to trap smoke in the area in case of fire and emergency and to provide fresh air flow by evacuating the smoke from that area. At the same time, these systems are always used as mechanical ventilation to prevent smoke ingress in vertical shafts to ensure that stairs and elevator shafts remain smoke-free. In this way, it can be easier with elevator pressurization systems to create higher pressure in living spaces and provide fresh air flow through the air duct. This system opens a way out for people staying in the building to evacuate more safely in the event of a fire, and also allows firefighters to intervene in the fire more safely.

When a fire breaks out in buildings, the smoke that is usually formed has a tendency to move towards other existing vertical shafts such as elevators and stairwells, under the influence of elements such as the stack effect, natural convection and thermal expansion. The smoke filling these volumes prevents the evacuation route of people living in the building and the correct intervention of fire brigades. The use of pressurization systems stands out as one of the important methods used to solve this problem. Especially in the 1960s, its use became much more common to protect the stairwells of high-rise buildings from smoke.

The main purpose of elevator pressurization is; It can be described as preventing the entry of smoke in fire elevators, ensuring human evacuation in a smoke-free area in a healthy way, and providing the most appropriate means of transportation for firefighters to intervene in the fire. According to the regulation on fire protection of buildings, it is required that a smoke purification and ventilation chimney of at least 0.1 m2 in the elevator shaft and 0.025 times the area of ​​the shaft must be present and pressurized.

Harmful smoke generated in fires requires evacuation of these harmful gases as soon as possible due to their poisonous effect and difficulty in breathing. Pressurization systems are extremely effective in creating fresh air space by evacuating toxic air. At this point, calculating the elevator pressurization system correctly will ensure that the lives of all people living in the buildings are secured by having the most accurate pressurization system. In order for the elevator pressure system to be used in case of a possible fire, the calculation must be made as follows:

How to Calculate Elevator Pressurization?

When calculating elevator pressurization, the type of landing doors used in the planned elevator and the number of doors waiting open during waiting, if any, must be determined in advance. Therefore, in order to perform pressurization, the number of elevators to be used in the building, the location and features of the elevators within the architectural project must be known in advance. When the pressurization system works, if all doors are closed, the pressure between the pressurized elevator shaft and the building usage areas must be 50Pa different. However, if there is an elevator landing door that is open, this pressure difference should be 15Pa.

It is considered mandatory that elevator landing doors open to the stairwell, that is, the staircase landing, inside the building. However, if a pressurization system is applied in the stairwell of the building, this pressure in the elevator shaft must be designed to be higher than the pressure applied to the staircase air. If semi-automatic doors are used on landing doors, the inevitable force of the door closing spring on the doors must be greater than the opening force created by compressed air. However, in this case, if the adjusted semi-automatic door springs negatively affect the normal operating standard of the doors and cause hard closing, then a calculation must be made by taking into account the position of the landing door waiting open in the pressurization calculations.

When the elevator pressurization system starts to work actively; It must be able to provide sufficient air speed to prevent smoke from entering the pressurized elevator shaft from the open landing door. If any door is left completely open, the average speed of the air flow should not be less than 1m/sec. The flow rate of the pressurization air must be at a rate that can cover the amount of air that can escape from the total leakage areas in the elevator shaft. In elevators with semi-automatic doors, an existing flow rate of 0.09 m/sec must be added per door. The elevator pressurization system is clearly stated in the Regulation on Fire Protection of Buildings.

According to this:

  • Article 62/2: The elevator shaft and the machine room must be made of non-flammable materials that can provide fire resistance for at least 60 minutes,
  • Article 62/4: A ventilation and smoke purification chimney must be present or pressurized in the elevator shaft, at least 0.1 m and 0.025 times the area of ​​the shaft. At the same time, elevators that actively serve in basement floors must be accessed from a protected corridor or fire safety hall in the basement floors. It is not possible to open elevators directly to usage areas other than corridors, doors, halls and similar points.
  • Article 63/6: The machine room in the emergency elevator must be separate. This also means that the elevator shaft is pressurized.
  • Article 89/4: In order to prevent the side of the emergency elevator shafts from being affected by the fire, the emergency elevator shafts must be pressurized.

As can be understood from the mentioned items, it is very important to install emergency elevators, which are considered mandatory in high-rise buildings, and optional pressurization systems in the elevator shafts of other buildings.

Buildings where elevator pressurization systems are mandatory can be listed as follows:

  • Article 89-2: If the height of the staircase is more than 30, 50 m in all buildings except residences,
  • In residences where the building height is more than 51.50 m,
  • In buildings with 4 or more basement floors, escape stairs serving specifically to the basement floor,
  • It is essential to use pressurization systems in emergency elevator shafts.

Elevator Pressurization Systems with the ERF Group Difference

Elevator pressurization systems are very important for the health of people living in buildings. During a fire, smoke can spread from the area where the fire broke out to much more distant areas of the building and can fill a volume that is geometrically smoke-free. Accordingly, elevator shafts, stairwells and vertical shafts are primarily areas that are likely to be filled with smoke. While evacuation from the fire building becomes much more difficult due to this dense smoke, it can also be a negative factor that prevents the fire brigade from responding to the fire. Accordingly, it is very important that the elevator pressurization system used is designed appropriately for the area and applied under the right conditions. An effective pressurization system can be more easily accessible by choosing a company that performs accurate and effective work.

In this sense, the operating principle of the preferred company should be taken into consideration. ERF Group is a professional company that always stands out with its service approach at high quality standards. For our company, which has many years of working experience, the priority is always to gain customer satisfaction. You can visit our website to experience the advantages of using the latest technology in industrial fan systems and ventilation machines, and contact our expert staff in order to find rational solutions to your ventilation-related problems. Accessing fresh air and saving energy through ventilation systems is now much easier with ERF Group.